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Naturescaping

Tree Frog Farm | Flower EssencesNaturescaping is the landscape design concept that mimics complex habitats with primarily native plants that are pleasing to humans, wildlife, and all nature beings. By respecting the natural ecological processes in your landscape and providing natural food, water, and shelter sources for wildlife, you can have a low maintenance, satisfying and edible landscape with diversity and interest. Naturescaping improves soil and water quality and promotes ecosystem health. John is available for naturescaping, tours, workshops and public talks for your community group, garden club or at Tree Frog Farm.

Tree Frog Farm incorporates a diverse selection of Pacific Northwest native plants to increase biodiverity and ecosystem health to the landscape. Many of these plants have been propagated right here from hand collected seeds and cuttings that are ecotyped to western and eastern Washington regions. From this endeavor, we have established a Pacific Northwest native and medicinal herb nursery for the home gardener and land owner ecological restoration projects. We try to keep a stock of 10-50 items of each species on hand.

Why Native Plants?

Native plants are indigenous to their region and have adapted to the climate, soils, diseases, insects and wildlife for eons. Gardening with native plants can bring more of the natural setting into your landscape, promoting wildlife habitats (food & cover) and requiring less maintenance.  Native plants combined with ornamentals in your garden compliment one another and blend well with the regional landscapes. Adding native plants to an already natural setting enhances and defines the natural heritage and beauty of the Pacific Northwest region.

Sales are conducted at Tree Frog Farm on Lummi Island, Washington throughout the year by appointment, or at local plant sales in the spring. Call John at (360) 758-7260 or email him to check on current availability. No mail order for plants.

Pacific Northwest Native Trees and Shrubs


Grand Fir (Abies grandis)

Native evergreen true fir of the northwest.  Mature stands are common in second growth forests due to their lack of commercial value. True to their name, they can grow to 250 feet and become good nesting and roosting sights for bald eagle, blue herons, hawks and ravens.

 

Vine Maple(Acer circinatum)

Native deciduous understory shrub or small tree to 20 feet noted for its green stems and small maple leaves turning bright red in late summer. Thrives best in moist to wet places under other trees where light reaches forest floor, forest edges, and in open shrub gardens. All maples are a valuable food source for butterfly larvae.

Douglas Maple (Acer glabrum v. douglasii)

Native deciduous shrub or small tree to 30 feet.  Prefers dry, well drained soils on forest edges and openings.  Leaves turn from green to bright yellow or red in Fall. The flowers appear in spring providing nectar and food source for insects. All maples are a valuable food source for butterfly larvae.

 

Bigleaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum)

Native large broad-leaved deciduous tree to 100 feet tall and 40 feet wide with excellent soil binding and erosion control qualities in dry to moist well-drained soil. Provides cover and nesting sites for birds, squirrels and other mammals. Greenish-yellow flowers appear in spring and provide nectar and food source for insects; especially butterflies. The seeds are dispersed in a helicopter style and are a good wildlife food source. Will drop large limbs so not recommended to plant near structures or near sewer, water and septic lines because the roots tend to invade the pipes and lines.

 

Red Alder (Alnus ruba)

Native deciduous rapid growing tree to 80 feet.  Important pioneer species that appears quickly after a soil disturbance and fixes atmospheric nitrogen into the soil. Good shade tree or hedgerow planting with bright green leaves turning yellow in the Fall. Provides good food source and cover for Butterfly larvae and birds.

 

Saskatoon Serviceberry(Amelanchier alnifolia)

Native deciduous perennial shrub 6 to 18 feet high and wide depending on site.  Has small oval dark green leaves, showy white flowers in early summer that attracts butterflies and hummingbirds with edible purple-black fruit for humans and wildlife.  Prefers moist to dry well drained soils in full sun, open forest edges and shorelines.  Excellent for wildlife habitat and soil erosion control.

 

Pacific Madrone (Arbutus menziesii)

Small to medium sized broad-leafed evergreen native coastal tree to 75 feet.  White flower clusters in spring and red berry clusters in late summer through winter.  Fruit is an excellent winter food source for birds.  Highly valued for its red-brown peeling bark with green underneath.  Difficult to transplant due to its very fragile root hairs and mycorrhizal associations.  Grows best in sandy to rocky WELL DRAINED soil in open west to southwestern facing areas sheltered from NE winter winds.  Lummi Island seed source.

 

San Juan Sage (Artemisia suksdorfii)

A native perennial sage of coastal bluffs and sandy beaches.  The very fragrant leaves are green above and  white-hairy below.  The flower heads are cream to yellow on four foot clustered stems.  Grows best in dry to moist well drained soil, and full sun.  Lummi Island, WA seed source.

 

Paper Birch (Betula papyrifera)

Deciduous northwest native tree to 100 feet. Peeling bark on mature trees white to copper-brown color, sometimes pink. The bark is used for basketry by humans and is used for nesting material for birds and mammals. Oval to round leaves turning golden yellow in fall. Leaves provide food for butterfly larvae, and cavity nesting birds and mammals nest and roost in tree cavities. Grows in open and dense deciduous or mixed evergreen woods in moist to wet soils.

 

Pacific Dogwood (Cornus nuttallii)

Native small deciduous tree to 40 feet with rich green leaves, white showy flowers in Spring and red berry clusters in Fall.  Grows in moist well drained sites in dense forest or open forest edges.  May be difficult to establish due to its susceptibility to disease.

 

Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea)

Freely spreading deciduous perennial shrub, 4-16 feet, native to North America. Grows best in moist to wet sites in full to partial sun.  The flowers are small, white to greenish in terminal clusters that form in May or June.  The fruit is a creamy white or tinged blue small berry in drooping clusters.  The red stems make this an attractive winter native ornamental shrub for erosion control or as a barrier hedge. Good source of wild bird food and habitat and a nectar source for butterflies and hummingbirds. The long slim stems were used by Indigenous people for basket weaving, and an extract from the bark and roots containing salicylic acid – aspirin was used for treating fevers and coughs. Indigenous people and early settlers smoked the inner bark, stem scrapings, and leaves, which have a slightly narcotic effect.

 

Yellow Twig Dogwood(Cornus sericea )

Freely spreading deciduous perennial shrub, 4-16 feet, native to North America. Grows best in moist to wet sites in full to partial sun.  The flowers are small, white to greenish in terminal clusters that form in May or June.  The fruit is a creamy white or tinged blue small berry in drooping clusters.  The bright yellow stems make this an attractive winter native ornamental shrub for erosion control or a barrier hedge. Good habitat and food source for birds, and a nectar source for butterflies and hummingbirds.

Western Beaked Hazelnut (Corylus cornuta var californica)

Native small tree or many-stemmed bush to 20 feet in sun or shade. The male flower, catkins, first appear before leaves in February or March. Also called filberts, the nut of this tree is a favorite food source for birds and squirrels. Grows best in damp well drained forest edges or light shade.

Salal (Gaultheria shallon)

Common shade-loving native thick-forming broad-leaf evergreen perennial shrub growing 2-6 feet; rarely above 3 feet in sunny sites.  The whitish pink small urn-shaped flowers hang on stalks in loose clusters forming edible blue-black berries. Flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Salal provides cover for birds and small mammals, hosts butterfly caterpillars and the fruit is eaten by birds, deer, bear and humans. Grows best in dry forest with full to partial shade.

 

Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor)

Northwest native erect deciduous perennial shrub to 16 feet tall with creamy white lilac-like flower clusters on terminal ends.  Flowers bloom in midsummer and stay on branches, turning brown in fall.  Excellent winter seed source for birds.  Grows best in dry to moist open sites or under high-branched exposed evergreen trees.

 

Black Twinberry (Lonicera involucrate)

Native, fast growing perennial straggly deciduous shrub 2-7 feet tall in the honeysuckle family.  Twin, yellow tubular flowers at leaf axis bloom April-May and twin blackish blue shiny berries form in June.  Flowers are good nectar source for hummingbirds, and berries, not usually considered edible by humans, are a favorite for birds. Grows best in moist open sites in loamy soil.  Can tolerate early shallow flooding.

Low Oregon Grape (Mahonia nervosa)

Evergreen native shrub to 2 feet with holly-like leaves.  The bright yellow flower clusters bloom in March-May; attracting butterflies and producing waxy dark blue berries that appear in grape-like clusters. The tart tasting berries are eaten by birds and mammals, and humans make wine and jelly from them. Roots are used medicinally as an antiseptic and liver tonic. Natural dyes are made from berry (blue-black) and root (yellow). Deer Resistant.

 

Osoberry/Indian Plum (Oemleria cerasiformis)

Fast Growing native deciduous perennial shrub or tree to 18 feet. Prefers moist rich soils in light sun or partial shade. First spring bloomer with white somewhat hanging bell-shaped flowers in February and March. Male and female flowers bloom on separate plants. Fruit are peach colored ripening to blue-black pea sized plums in June through August. Fruit is edible to humans when ripe and is a favorite of birds. Osoberry is a nectar plant for hummingbirds.

Devil Club (Oplopanax horridus)

Native deciduous perennial shrub to 8 feet related to oriental ginseng. Plant is heavily armored with large greenish spines on  stems and large maple-leaf shaped leaves. Flowers are small creamy white on terminal clusters turning to showy bright-red shiny berries in late summer.  Fruit is a favorite for birds.  Highly used medicinal plant for diabetes, arthritis, auto-immune disorders, body-balancing and system-strengthening

 

Mock-Orange (Philadelphus lewisii)

Native deciduous perennial shrub to 10 feet tall. Blooms fragrant, 4-5 petaled white flower clusters in mid- summer that attract butterflies.  Full to partial sun in dry to moist well drained soil on open sites, forest edges, or base of evergreen trees.

Pacific Ninebark (Physocarpus capitatus)

Native tall deciduous perennial shrub to 18 feet tall with attractive white pompom flower clusters in spring.  Arching angled branches on mature plants with peeling reddish-brown bark.  Prefers moist to wet soils in partial shade to full sun.

 

Sword Fern (Polystichum munitum)

Large native evergreen fern to 3 feet tall with erect or ascending fronds.  Grows best in moist mixed or evergreen forests with partial sun or shade and rich soils. 

  

Wild Gooseberry (Ribes divaricatum)

Native deciduous perennial shrub 3-8 feet with thorns at the leaf nodes.  Grows best in moist to dry forest edges with partial shade.  Inconspicuous burgundy and white fuchsia-like flowers yet a valuable food source for hummingbirds.  Gooseberries are edible for humans and wildlife.  DEER-RESISTANT

 

Black Gooseberry (Ribes lacustre)

Native deciduous perennial shrub to 4 feet with small “fuzzy” golden prickles along stalk and thorns at leaf nodes.  Leaves are maple-leaf shaped, small reddish flower clusters and black fruit in early fall.  Grows best in shady, moist to wet forests; often growing on old rotting wood.

 

Red-flowering Current (Ribes sanguineum)

Native deciduous perennial shrub to 10 feet that produces profuse blooms of red-pink blossoms in early spring.  Flowers are excellent food source for hummingbirds and butterflies. The dark purple berries are edible for wildlife and humans. Sun to partial shade in dry, well drained soils.  DEER-RESISTANT

 

Dwarf Wild Rosa (Rosa gymnocarpa)

Native deciduous perennial shrub to 5 feet with fragrant pink flowers in early summer.  The fruit is small orange to scarlet pear-shaped hips that often persists through winter. Grows in dry soils in shady locations. 

 

Nootka Wild Rose (Rosa nutkana)

Native deciduous perennial shrub 3-8 feet with large fragrant pink flowers in early summer.  Provides food and nectar for butterflies and humming birds. The fruit is purplish-red large round hips used in teas; high in vitamin C.  Grows in most moist soils in sunny locations.   DEER-RESISTANT

 

Clustered Wild Rose (Rosa pisocarpa)

Fast growing native wild rose with clusters of small bright pink flowers in early summer. May grow up to 8 feet tall. Prefers moist to wet soils in sunny or partially sunny sites.  The flowers attract bees and butterflies and the small bright red egg-shaped hips are eaten by birds and mammals. The leaves of all wild roses are eaten by the mourning cloak butterfly larvae.

 

Black-cap Raspberry (Rubus leucodermis)

Native perennial deciduous shrub 3-5 feet tall with erect arching blue-green colored stems with small curved prickles.  Clusters of small white flowers bearing red turning to purple-black edible fruit in midsummer. Grows in open clearings in dry to moist soil with partial shade.  Inconspicuous white flowers yet a valuable food source for hummingbirds.

 

Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus)

Native deciduous perennial raspberry-like shrub with no thorns.  It has large, fuzzy, maple-like leaves and produces a tasty red berry for humans and wildlife.  The white five-petal rose-like flowers attract butterflies and hummingbirds.  Excellent for stabilizing sunny, moist slopes and open sites. 

Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)

Deciduous native perennial shrub common in areas of moist, rich soils with sun.  Provides delicious, orange-red blackberry-like fruit in early summer.  Its magenta flowers announces the coming of spring and serves as an early nectar source for our returning Rufus Hummingbird. Can grow to 10 feet in ideal sites and spreads by rhizomes making it an ideal selection for hedges.

Pacific Willow (Salix lucida ssp. lasiandra)

Native deciduous tall slender shrub or tree to 40 feet.  Long lance-shaped leaves, yellow-green bark and pale yellow flowers in spring.  Prune to keep short and shrubby. Thrives in wet areas such as stream banks, flood plains and wet meadows. Attracts bird for food and shelter.

 

Sitka Willow (Salix sitchensis)

Native deciduous perennial shrubby tree to 3-20 feet.  The flowers (catkins) appear with or before leaves emerge in early spring.  Provides food, nesting or cover for many birds, mammals, and insect species, including hosting butterfly caterpillars. Like most willows they are fast growing in wet sunny sites and have good soil-binding qualities. Don’t plant near septic and sewer lines.

 

Red Elderberry (Sambucus racemosa)

Fast growing native deciduous shrub or small tree to 18 feet with soft pithy green twigs, which becomes woody with age.  Creamy white flowers form in clusters turning to red clusters of berries. Berries are edible for wildlife but raw can be poisonous to humans. Cooked and seeds removed makes good jelly, jams and syrups. Grows quickly in forest edges, clearings or newly disturbed site that are moist or wet.  Excellent shrub for attracting birds for viewing.

 

Common Snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)

Native deciduous shrub to 7 feet with thick, delicate branches, leaves and small pink bell-shaped flowers.  The white pea-sized berry persists through winter and provides an important wildlife food source.  Spreads by rhizomes in moist to dry soils, shade and full sun providing excellent erosion control, creating hedgerows and wildlife habitat. Flowers attract hummingbirds.

Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia)

Native evergreen shrub or small tree 6 to 40 feet with reddish, papery bark found the understory of mature evergreens.  Bark has been used as the anti-cancer agent – Taxal. Berries and seeds are toxic to humans but birds consume them. Has good soil binding and erosion control qualities. Grows in moist mixed forests in sun or partial shade.

 

Evergreen Huckleberry (Vaccinium ovatum)

Native evergreen densely bushy shrub to 3 feet in sun, eight feet tall in shade with light-pink small flowers and blue berries in fall. Grows best in partial shade or partial full-sun in soils rich in organic matter. Attracts hummingbirds and butterflies, humans and wildlife eat the berries.

Pacific Northwest Native Flowers & Groundcovers

 

Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

Common native perennial medicinal herb that grows erect to 3 feet with green to gray-green fern -like leaves. Flowers are small white to pale yellow in clusters along stem.  Many cultures have used Yarrow for cold, fever and as a wound healer. 

Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum pedatum)

Delicate, showy black stemmed native perennial fern to 18 inches tall with fan-shaped fine leaves. Grows best in damp shady humus-rich forests or rocky crevices. 

North American native perennial to 3 feet tall related to “pussytoes”. Attractive pearly white button-like flowers on flat-top clusters. Drought tolerant and grows best in sunny dry to moist well drained sites. Attracts Butterflies. 

Red Columbine(Aquilegia formosa)

Native perennial upright brightly flowering plant to 30 inches. The red flowers with red or yellow spurs bloom in spring and early summer providing nectar to butterflies and hummingbirds. Seeds are eaten by birds and plant self-seeds readily. Grows in sun to partial shade in moist to dry well drained to rocky soils. 

Kinnikinnik (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi)

Native evergreen ground cover with trailing branches with thickly clothed dark green, leathery leaves. The white – pink, urn-shaped flowers bloom in early spring, attracting hummingbirds, followed by vibrant red berries which birds love. This fast-growing plant is found in dry, sunny locations and requires no watering in summer. Good for erosion control in poor soils. Native groups smoke Kinnikinnik and the berries are still used medicinally to treat bladder and kidney disorders. 

Goat Beard(Aruncus dioicus)

A robust perennial to 6 feet with graceful large-leafed foliage and showy plumes of tiny white flowers on stalks.  It prefers edge habitats in moist forests, road-cuts and stream banks. The male plant bears the showier flowers.  

Meadow Arnica (Arnica chamissonis)

North American native perennial medicinal herb with daisy like yellow flowers on creeping stems to 1 foot tall. Whole flowering plant is used in oil, salves or strong teas as an anti-inflammatory on bruises, strains or sprains. Grows best in full sun in moist loamy soil. 

Wild Ginger (Asarum caudatum)

Low growing aromatic evergreen groundcover of moist, rich, shady soils. The whole plant smells of lemon-ginger when bruised or crushed. Leaves are shiny heart-shaped usually growing in pairs off creeping stems that will form scattered mats.  The striking flowers are purple-brown bell-shaped, though are often hidden bloom April-July. Protect from slugs and snails. 

Lady Fern (Athyrium filix-femina)

A fast growing native deciduous fern 2-5 feet tall with multiple yellow-green, lance-shaped fronds growing from a central clump. Grows best in moist to wet soils in full sun to full shade. Provides cover for wildlife. 

Great Camas (Camassia leichtlinii)

Native perennial bright purple blooming flower in the lily family. The bulb is a valuable food source of indigenous peoples. Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. Grows in sunny moist areas. 

Slough Sedge (Carex obnupta)

West coast native evergreen grass-like sedge to 3 feet tall in moist to wet sites and is drought tolerant. Can grow in sun or shade and is attractive in groupings or single plantings around ponds, wet meadows and other water features. The inconspicuous flower blooms from April to July and seeds attract foraging birds and waterfowl. In shallow, wetter areas, slough sedge provides important egg laying habitat for amphibians.  

Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa)

Attractive clump-forming grass native to marshes and wet prairies of North America to 18 inches tall. Easily grown in average, medium wet, well-drained soils in part shade to sun. Numerous flower stems rise in summer from the foliage mound to a height of 3' bearing wide, airy panicles of tiny, variably-colored flowers of gold, silver, purple and green. Flower panicles turn yellowish-tan after bloom as the seed ripens and may remain attractive through much of the winter. Small birds are attracted to the seeds and plants provide cover. 

Pacific Bleeding Heart (Dicentra formosa)

Divided fern-like basal leaf foliage on fleshy stems to 18 inches tall.  The bleeding-heart grows in moist well-drained rich soils and partial shade.  The heart-shaped pink to purple flowers in clusters of 5-15 bloom in mid-spring and are a favorite of hummingbirds and butterfly larvae will feed on the leaves.  Ants are attracted to the seeds and carry them off to ensure new established patches. 

Wood Fern (Dryopteris expansa)

Native deciduous woodland fern. Each frond is lacy broad-triangular 1-3 foot tall.  Each plant usually has 3- 7 fronds growing in partial shade in lowland forest soil and in decaying logs. 

Coastal Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)

Native perennial groundcover with attractive shiny dark-green leaves, white flowers and edible fruit. Grows best in sunny or partial shady conditions in sandy or well-drained soils and rock gardens. Attracts butterflies and bees. One of the two species of the hybridized commercial strawberry - the other being, F. virginiana. Attracts butterflies. 

Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

Native perennial ground cover to 4 inches tall with runners. White flowers on short stalk bearing edible small fruit in summer. Fruit is a favorite for small wildlife and birds. Grows best in sunny openings or forest edges and excellent groundcover for weed control. Attracts butterflies

Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)

Native perennial ground cover to 6 inches tall. White flowers bearing edible small fruit in early summer. The leaves are usually larger and more grayish-green than woodland or coastal strawberries. This is a very hardy strawberry plant and one of the two species of the hybridized commercial strawberry- the other being F. chiloensis. Attracts butterflies. 

Large-leaved Avens (Geum macrophyllum)

Common perennial groundcovers in open moist to dry forests and glades.  Leaves are hairy borne at the base (basal) and along the flowering stem to 3 feet.  A single to several bright yellow flower appears at the tops of stems.  

Small-flowered Alumnroot (Heuchera micrantha)

Small-flowered alumroot is a great perennial wildflower for the shaded rock garden or woodland plot. In dense plantings, the multiple inflorescences add great texture to the garden. Older plants may become less attractive because the stems elongate, losing their lower leaves, so that the basal leaves are elevated off of the ground. At this point, plants could be dug up and divided into multiple plants.  

Pacific Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum tenuipes)

Native perennial deciduous, widely branching climbing vine to 16 feet the orange-yellow trumpet shaped flowers at branch ends attracts hummingbirds.  Grows in sunny or partially sunny sites along woods and thickets in dry to moist soil. 

Hairy Honeysuckle (Lonicera hipidula)

Native perennial deciduous trailing vine with hairy dark green leaves and white to pinkish-purple trumpet flowers attractive to Attracts Flowers attract hummingbirds. Grows in dry, open forests, and rocky ridges.  Makes a showy ground cover in the garden. 

Field Mint (Mentha arvensis)

Very aromatic perennial herb growing 18-24 inches tall and spreading habit.  Flowers are light purple or pink emerging from the leaf/stem joint in early summer.  Prefers moist sunny sights and makes a nice additions to wet meadow plantings. Leaves make a tasty mint tea.  

Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa)

Perennial North American native herb to 4 feet tall.  Makes tight  clusters of lavender long-tubed flowers that attract hummingbirds and butterflies.  Excellent tea herb or fresh-cut flowers.  Prefers full sun to partial shade in moist to dry soils. 

Redwood SOrrel (Oxalis oregana)

Perennial native groundcovers to 6 inches with distinctive three-parted, bright green shamrock shaped leaves that open and close at night and during rains.  Favors  moist forest shady sites.  Flowers are white to pale pink. 

Coltsfoot (Petasites frigidus var. palmatus)

Native woodland groundcover that blooms from March through July.  But it’s most noted for its large, palmate, deeply lobed leaves to 1 foot tall and wide.  The small creamy-white or pink flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters above the leaves. Prefers wet seepage, moist woods and ditches. 

Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium)

Delicate western native member of the Iris family preferring moist to wet edge, sunny sites.  Perennial growing to 12-16 inches tall. Flowers are small, circular blue to purple with yellow “eyed” center.   Seeds are carried off and eaten or reseeded by rodents. 

Golden-eyed Grass(Sisyrinchium californicum)

Delicate western native member of the Iris family preferring moist to wet edge, sunny sites.  Perennial growing to 12-14 inches tall in tufted clumps. Flowers are small, bright yellow in terminal cluster. Seeds are carried off and eaten or reseeded by rodents. 

Fringecup (tellima grandiflora)

Native perennial groundcovers with showy hairy green heart-shaped leaves. Flowers are very fragrant small greenish-white turning reddish on stalks 2 feet tall; 10-35 in loose flower clusters that attract hummingbirds.  Grow best in loose moist to dry soils in sunny locations. 

Foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata)

Native perennial groundcovers that gains it common name from the delicate tiny white flowers at the end of short stalks like specks of foam that attract butterflies and other beneficial insects.  Flowers can last through summer above attractive maple-shaped basal leaves. Prefers growing in moist shady coniferous forests. 

Piggi-back plant (Tolmiea menziesii)

Northwest native perennial groundcover and popular houseplant that gets it common name from its ability to produce plantlets from the leaf-base.  It has bright green hairy leaves with small chocolate colored flowers with bright yellow anthers on 1-2 foot stalks that attract the Rufus hummingbird. Grows best in moist shady gardens and forest glades.

 

Medicinal Herbs and Ornamental Flowers


Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris)

Common garden ornamental medicinal herb. Native to Europe, temperate Asia and North America. Scalloped deep-green leaves funnel and collect dewdrops (flower essence) that magnify and glisten in morning light. Tiny yellow flowers that are beautiful in dried arrangements. Tea useful in treating PMS and menstrual pain.

Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)

Erect downy perennial herb to 7 feet with heart-shaped leaves and showy small white flowers with pink centers emerging from stalk in mid-summer. Attracts butterflies. Tea from roots, leaves and flowers brings relief from dry coughs, bronchial congestion and intestinal problems. Grows best in partial shady gardens in rich soil.

 

Pink Double Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)

Perennial with deep blue to purple double petal flowers.  Blooms in late spring and flowers are attractive to hummingbirds and butterflies. Prefers damp open to partly shaded sites.  Can self-seeds readily in garden beds.

 

Purple Double Columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)

Perennial with deep blue to purple double petal flowers.  Blooms in late spring and flowers are attractive to hummingbirds and butterflies. Prefers damp open to partly shaded sites.  Can self-seeds readily in garden beds.

 

Common Burdock (Arcticum minus)

Roots of this herb are used as a detoxifier for sore throats, skin problems and eliminating heavy metals.  Native to Europe and Asia this herb is commonly found in fields and meadows in the N. Am. west. The second year flower stalks grow to 5 feet producing purple flowers in bur-like structures which gave rise to the idea of “Velcro”.

Butterfly flower/ Pleurisy Root (Asclepias tuberosa)

Perennial herb native to eastern and southern US to 2 feet tall with bright yellow to orange or red flowers that attract butterflies. Root is used to treat hot, dry, tight conditions in the chest and inflammation of pleurisy. Plant prefers full sun regular garden or poor soils. Drought tolerant once established.

 

Michaelmas Daisy (Aster novae-angliae cv)

Fall blooming perennial ornamental aster to 3 feet tall. Flowers are bluish-purple on a graceful stout stemmed plant.  Flowers remain until late fall and are a good source for Butterfly food and nectar. Prefers full sun and tolerates moist poor soils.

 

Calendula (Calendula officinalis)

A sunny flowering annual garden herb that reseeds readily. Orange and yellow blossoms. Blossoms are edible. Rich in carotenoid for use in dye. Medicinal uses: Antiseptic tinctures, healing skin and wound ointments, and menstrual regulator.

 

Black Cohosh (Cimicuifuga racemosa)

Perennial herb native to eastern US hardwood forests with tall plumes of cream to white flowers, on a wand-like stems, bloom from May to July, often-towering over six feet.  Butterflies and hummingbirds are quite attracted to the flowers. From August to October, seeds develop in capsules and make a rattling sound when they are mature and ready to be harvested. Root has been used as a treatment alternative to mainstream hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and for premenstrual syndrome (PMS).  Other traditional medicinal uses include rheumatism, sore throats, and bronchitis.

 

February Daphne (Daphne mezereum)

Deciduous perennial shrub to 4 feet with very sweet-scented purple flowers along branches in Feb. and March, forming red berries in summer.  Grows best in well-drained rich dry to moist soils in partial shade. Plant along entry ways for sweet smells in early spring. Attracts hummingbirds and birds readily eat the berries.

 

Common Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)

Biennial native to Europe. Abundant in the wild landscapes of the Pacific Northwest usually in disturbed sites.  Flowers are drooping bell-shaped, pink-purple, sometimes white, on tall stalks to 5 feet tall.  Attracts butterflies and hummingbirds.

 

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea)

North American native perennial medicinal herb.  Roots leaves and flower petals are used to support and stimulate the immune system and for treatment of the common cold.  A vigorous purple petaled sunflower-shaped flower on stems to 3 feet tall attracts butterflies.  Grows in full sun or partial shade in average well drained garden soil.

 

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

Eastern and southern US native perennial herb to 4 feet tall with white to pink head of small aromatic flowers that attract butterflies Blooms July to September. Dried leaves and flowers made into a tea for resistance to viral and bacterial infections. Commonly used for chest colds, flu and cough.

 

Hardy Fuchsia (Fuchsia megellancia "Riccartoni")

The most hardy of the non-native perennial shrubby type of hardy fuchsias to 6 feet tall. This is a profuse bloomer of crimson-purple flowers in July that attracts butterflies and hummingbirds until the first freeze. Plant will die back to root crown after prolonged cold below 20 degrees F and new growth will emerge in spring; otherwise, new growth will emerge form last years stalks. Prefers well-drained moist soils and full sun to partial shade.

 

Sweet Woodruff (Galium odorata)

Hardy low-spreading aromatic perennial groundcovers with clusters of tiny white flowers in late spring.  Does well in shady gardens and will spread rapidly in rich moist soils.

 

Licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

Perennial herb native to Mediterranean that grows to 5 feet tall with creamy white small lilac like flowers that attracts butterflies. The plant juice is 50 times sweeter than sugar and roots are used for adrenal stimulation, chronic fatigue syndrome, anti-inflammatory of digestive system, chest, and joints.  Grows in sunny, dry soils and is drought tolerant.

 

Oriental Iris (Spuria iris ochroleuca)

From rhizomes the tall sword shaped leaves grow to 3 feet.   The slender stalk emerges in early summer to form a long, narrow beardless white flower with yellow throat much in the shape of a heron’s head. 

 

Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca)

Perennial garden herb with sharp toothed leaves and whorls of tiny pink two-lipped flowers.  The whole upper part of the plant is harvested for  making herbal preparations.  Regulates and tones the thyroid, blood vessels, liver, heart and uterus.  Relieves hot flashes, faintness, anxiety, insomnia, menstrual cramps, depression. Strengthens the heart. 

Money Plant (Lunaria biennis)

Biennial, old-fashioned garden plant with phlox-like purple flowers to 3 feet tall. Translucent silvery round seed pods remain on stalks and make attractive dried bouquets. Self-seeds readily in most soils.

 

Lemon Balm (mellissa offiinalis)

Perennial herb to 2 feet with lemony scent and flavor in the bright dark-green leaves.  Dried leaves are used for lemon flavoring and medicinally for easing depression, calm nerves, relieve headaches and strengthens heart.  Grows best in sun or partial shade.

 

Basil Mint (Mentha cv)

Very aromatic culinary herb with small green to maroon colored leaves on stalks to 18 inches tall.  Small pale blue to whit flowers form stalk above foliage. Fresh and dried leaves used for cooking spice or in mixed mint teas. Spreads readily from underground stems.

 

Peppermint (Mentha piperita)

Aromatic perennial herb with classic peppermint mint taste cultivated worldwide. Excellent for making refreshing digestive teas from dried or fresh leaves. Can spread readily from rooting stems to 2 feet tall.

 

Chocolate Mint (Mentha piperita cv.)

Perennial mint groundcovers to 2 foot tall that spreads readily. The leaves of this variety are strongly chocolate-minty scented with small lavender colored flowers that attract butterflies.  Use dried leaves in tea alone or in combination with other herbs and in cooking especially cookies and brownies. High in B vitamin, folic acid, calcium and iron.             

 

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

Common aromatic perennial native herb to Europe and the Mediterranean. Makes dark-green leaves used in making mind-stimulating tea. Can spread readily from rooting stems to 2 feet tall. Small lavender colored flower attract butterflies. Grows in average garden soils in full or partial sun.

 

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

Perennial herb native to Europe with downy green foliage with small dense white flowers clusters that attract butterflies and hummingbirds. Sedative and calming tea from dried leaves; aromatic favorite of cats – and their companion humans. Grows to 3 feet.

 

Lungwort (Pulmonaria officinalis)

Early blooming perennial medicinal herb with pink and blue flowers and white- spotted leaves resembling lungs. Thrives in partial shade and forest edges to 9 inches tall. Lungwort has a high mucilage content and this makes it useful in the treatment of chest conditions, being of particular benefit in cases of chronic bronchitis and the treatment of chronic coughs.

 

Sundrop Evening Primrose (Oenothera tetragona)

Perennial ornamental to 2 feet tall with reddish stems and green foliage.  Yellow 1 1/2 inch flowers bloom throughout the summer needing  no watering once established.

 

Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa)

Non-native wild deciduous rose to 6 feet.  The bright pink to purple-pink flowers are very fragrant and attracts hummingbirds and butterflies. The orange fruit (rosehips) ripens in cherry-tomato like clusters and provide a long term food source for birds and mammals. It will grow in salty conditions, shade, full sun, poor soil even in sand as long as the soil is well drained.

 

Blue Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)

Perennial medicinal herb in the mint family used to nourish and calm the nervous system.  Pointed and toothed oval leaves with small blue flowers which are produced on one-sided flower stalk.  Sun to partial shade; grows to 3 feet tall.

 

Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)

A common perennial herb to 6 feet found on moist forest edges, meadows and disturbed sites of rich soil.  Hollow hairs on the leaves and stems inject folic acid into the skin, causing a stinging sensation.  A valuable plant to humans for food, medicine and materials:  Harvest young leaves (with gloves) in Spring and steam or boil for food high in vitamin A, B, C, K, calcium, potassium and iron.  Dried leaves and root are used as a tea for menopause symptoms, blood building and strengthening kidneys.  The fibrous stems were used in making strong cord for use in basketry, ropes and fishing nets.

 

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis)

Very fragrant perennial medicinal herb native to Europe and Asia. The flowers are borne on an umbrella like flower stalk to 5 feet tall which perfumes the garden area in mid-summer. Flowers will attract butterflies and hummingbirds. All parts of plant are used for muscle relaxant, cerebral sedative and insomnia. Grows best in full sun or partial shade in dry to moist soil.

 

Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)

Perennial medicinal herb native to stream banks and meadows.  Grows in sunny moist site to 5 feet. Long toothed lance-shaped leaves and bright violet-blue flowers on eight inch spikes.  Used for liver, respiratory, nervous disorders, and for menstrual complaints.

 

Hardy Purple Viola (Viola labradorica)

Hardy purple-green leafed ornamental perennial native to northern Canada and Greenland.  Ground cover to 3 in. that bares profuse bright lavender-blue flowers throughout the year.  Combines well with white or yellow flowered groundcovers, rock gardens or in combination in window boxes. Grows in sun and light shade in most soils and spreads by runners.